Divide the remaining available memory between the SGA and the PGA: For OLTP systems, the PGA memory typically makes up a small fraction of the available memory, leaving most of the remaining memory for the SGA. Generally, bigger work areas can significantly improve the performance of a particular operator at the cost of higher memory consumption. Tune the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter using Oracle PGA advice statistics, as described in "Tuning PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET". Set the initial value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameter based on the amount of available memory for the Oracle database instance.

There are some advantages of cron:- Easy to use, simple, tried and true, only takes seconds to create or modify jobs.Almost universally available on all Linux/Unix boxes; for the most part, runs nearly identically, regardless of the Linux/Unix platform (yep!, there are minor differences)Database agnostic; operates independently of the database and works the same, regardless of the database vendor or version.Works whether or not the database is available. MULTIPASSES_EXECUTIONS-number of times, this work area used temporary tablespace in multiple times to get it finished.

Statistics about the work area used by this sort operation are placed in the bucket defined by: HIGH_OPTIMAL_SIZE = 4194303 (4 MB minus 1 byte).

Therefore, any decisions to increase PGA memory must be taken in the larger context of the available memory in the system and the performance of the various SGA components (which you can monitor with shared pool advisory and buffer cache advisory statistics). Typically, some work areas run one-pass or even multi-pass, depending on the overall size of the PGA memory. As a rule of thumb, the PGA cache hit percentage should be higher than 60%, because at 60% the system is almost processing double the number of bytes it actually needs to process in an ideal situation. A sort operator uses a work area (the sort area) to perform the in-memory sorting of a set of rows. PGA Target    Size       W/A MB   W/A MB Read/      Cache  Overalloc, randydba Blog { Database - Tips & Techniques }, How to Read PGA Memory Advisory Section in AWR and Statspack Reports, Oracle Database 19c Step by Step Installation On Oracle Linux 7.6, Automating RMAN backup Jobs with CRON utility, Oracle Audit Vault and Database Firewall Installation (Oracle Audit Vault Server 12.2.0.4). For complex queries (such as decision support queries), a big portion of the run-time area is dedicated to work areas allocated by memory intensive operators, including: Sort-based operators, such as ORDER BY, GROUP BY, ROLLUP, and window functions, Write buffers used by bulk load operations.

"There is much worth noticing that often escapes the eye." Therefore, any query executed against the V$SQL_WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM view can be used on this view, with an additional predicate to select the desired value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter. This section describes how to limit the size of the PGA using the PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT initialization parameter and contains the following topics: The PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT initialization parameter enables you to specify a hard limit on PGA memory usage. Small, active sort operations (under 64 KB) are excluded from this view. The curve shows how PGA cache hit percentage improves as the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter increases. By default, PGA memory management is enabled.

The V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_HISTOGRAM view is identical to the V$SQL_WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM view, with two additional columns to represent the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET values used for the prediction. Tagged with oracle, tuning, About Mariami KupatadzeOracle Certified Master The available work area sizes include: Optimal size is when the size of a work area is large enough that it can accommodate the input data and auxiliary memory structures allocated by its associated SQL operator.

In this example, the output shows that increasing the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter by a factor of 2 will enable all work areas under 16 MB to execute in optimal size. Assume a limit X on the memory that can be allocated to PGA: If limit X is higher than the optimal value, set the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter to the optimal value. The V$WORKAREA_ACTIVE view displays the work areas that are active (or executing) in the database instance.
Setting this parameter to 0 disables automatic PGA memory management and is not recommended. Excessive PGA usage can lead to high rates of swapping.

This should happen only in large DSS systems where the optimal memory requirement is large and may cause the value of the cache hit percentage to taper off at a lower percentage, such as 90%. Filed under DB You can set the value of PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT regardless of whether automatic memory management is being used. The following query shows statistics for all non-empty buckets: The result of the query might look like the following: In this example, the output shows that—in the 1 MB to 2 MB bucket—551 work areas ran in optimal size, while 16 ran in one-pass size and none ran in multi-pass size. This reduces the cache hit percentage in proportion to the size of the input data and the number of extra passes performed. This statistic indicates the number of bytes processed by memory-intensive SQL operators since instance startup.
Even for DSS systems running large sorts and hash-joins, the memory requirement for one-pass executions is relatively small.

This statistic represents the number of bytes processed during these extra passes since instance startup.

For example, if an Oracle database instance is configured to run on a system with 4 GB of physical memory, and if 80% (or 3.2 GB) of the memory is dedicated to the Oracle database instance, then initially set PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET to 640 MB for an OLTP system, or 1,600 MB for a DSS system. In the example output this happens at value 99,935.0. However, the correct setting for the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter depends on how much memory can be dedicated to the PGA component. This 1 MB value is the number of extra bytes read/written, or EBP. The following query shows the percentage of times work areas are executed in optimal, one-pass, or multi-pass size since startup. The default value is 20% of the SGA size. If this value is small compared to the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET value, then most of PGA memory is used by other system components (such as PL/SQL or Java) and little is left for work areas. For information about setting this parameter, see "Setting the Initial Value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET".

-- ----------------------------- --------------------. The value is expresses as a number followed by K (for kilobytes), M (for megabytes), or G (for gigabytes). 4.0     2,741,061.8        272,980.1     91.0          0, 8,604            

Generally, adding PGA memory requires reducing memory for some SGA components—like the shared pool or buffer cache—because the overall memory dedicated to the database instance is often bound by the amount of physical memory available on the system.

This post deals with the installation of Audit Vault Server only.

Use the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE view to ensure that the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET value is not set within the over-allocation zone, as described in "Using the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE View".


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